Traumatic and Routine Stressors in Emergency Nurses: A Turkish Validity and Reliability Study



      Emergency nurses face traumatic and stressful events of many different forms and severity. The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Traumatic and Routine Stressors Scale on Emergency Nurses in Turkey.


      This methodological study was conducted with 195 nurses who had been working in the emergency service for at least six months and could be reached via an online questionnaire. Opinions of 9 experts were obtained with the translation-back translation method for linguistic validity, and the Davis technique was used for testing content validity. Test-retest analysis was used to test the time-invariance of the scale. Construct validity was evaluated with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The reliability of the scale was evaluated based on item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficients.


      The expert opinions were found to be in agreement with each other. Factor analysis results were acceptable, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the scale were 0.890 for the frequency factor, 0.928 for the impact factor, and 0.866 for the total scale. It was determined that the correlation values for the time-invariance of the scale were 0.637 for the frequency factor and 0.766 for the effect factor, and the scale had good test-retest reliability.


      The Turkish version of the Traumatic and Routine Stressors Scale on Emergency Nurses, has high levels of validity and reliability. We recommend that the scale be used to evaluate the state of being affected by traumatic and routine stressors among emergency service nurses.

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      Semra ErdağıOral is Assistant Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, Surgical Nursing Department, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey. Twitter: @semr00 ORCID identifier:


      Elif Karahan is Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Surgical Nursing Department, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey. ORCID identifier: