Advertisement

The Effect of the Flipped Classroom Model on Teaching Clinical Practice Skills

Published:November 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2022.09.005

      Abstract

      Introduction

      No evidence was found in the literature for the use of the flipped classroom model in teaching clinical practice skills in paramedics. The study aimed to determine the effect of the flipped classroom model in teaching clinical practice skills to paramedic program students.

      Methods

      The study was a single-center, randomized controlled, single-blind parallel-group study. The research was carried out with a university’s first-year paramedic program students in the 2021 to 2022 academic year. The students were divided into groups by stratified sampling (intervention group = 21, control group = 21). Five clinical skills practices at various times were explained to the intervention group with the flipped classroom model and to the control group with the traditional lecture method. The research data were collected with the Introductory Characteristics Information Form, Checklists, Time Tracking Form, and Students’ Questionnaire for Evaluating the flipped classroom model.

      Results

      Although the students in the intervention group received a higher total score from all 5 clinical practice skills than the students in the control group, this difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). However, although the time allocated for applications in the intervention group was 40 to 75 minutes longer than in the control group, most students stated that this model successfully taught skills and theory, increased their motivation during the application, and reduced application and exam anxiety.

      Discussion

      The flipped classroom model can be used as an alternative method to the traditional system in teaching clinical practice skills. This innovative educational approach can be recommended as a student-centered method in clinical skills teaching.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Emergency Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ewertsson M.
        • Bagga-Gupta S.
        • Allvin R.
        • Blomberg K.
        Tensions in learning professional identities-nursing students’ narratives and participation in practical skills during their clinical practice: an ethnographic study.
        BMC Nurs. 2017; 16: 48https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-017-0238-y
        • Ross J.G.
        Simulation and psychomotor skill acquisition: a review of the literature.
        Clin Simul Nurs. 2012; 8: e429-e435https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2011.04.004
        • Ewertsson M.
        • Gustafsson M.
        • Blomberg K.
        • Holmström I.
        • Allvin R.
        Use of technical skills and medical devices among new registered nurses: a questionnaire study.
        Nurse Educ Today. 2015; 35: 1169-1174https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.05.006
        • Leonardsen A.L.
        • Blågestad I.K.
        • Brynhildsen S.
        • et al.
        Nurses’ perspectives on technical skill requirements in primary and tertiary healthcare services.
        Nurs Open. 2020; 7: 1424-1430https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.513
        • Abeysekera L.
        • Dawson P.
        Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research.
        Higher Educ Res Dev. 2014; 34: 1-14https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.934336
        • Reyna J.
        Active learning and the flipped classroom (FC).
        (June 22, 2022)
        • Betihavas V.
        • Bridgman H.
        • Kornhaber R.
        • Cross M.
        The evidence for ‘flipping out’: a systematic review of the flipped classroom in nursing education.
        Nurse Educ Today. 2016; 38: 15-21https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.12.010
        • Sierra J.J.
        Shared responsibility and student learning: ensuring a favorable educational experience.
        J Mark Educ. 2010; 32: 104-111https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475309344802
        • Young T.P.
        • Bailey C.J.
        • Guptill M.
        • Thorp A.W.
        • Thomas T.L.
        The flipped classroom: a modality for mixed asynchronous and synchronous learning in a residency program.
        West J Emerg Med. 2014; 15: 938-944https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2014.10.23515
        • Bergmann J.
        • Sams A.
        Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day.
        International Society for Technology in Education, 2012
        • McCurry M.K.
        • Martins D.C.
        Teaching undergraduate nursing research: a comparison of traditional and innovative approaches for success with millennial learners.
        J Nurs Educ. 2010; 49: 276-279https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20091217-02
        • Stolic S.
        Educational strategies aimed at improving student nurse’s medication calculation skills: a review of the research literature.
        Nurse Educ Pract. 2014; 14: 491-503https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.05.010
        • Bradshaw M.J.
        • Hultquist B.L.
        • Hagler D.
        Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions.
        8th ed. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2021
        • Day-Black C.
        • Merrill E.B.
        • Konzelman L.
        • Williams T.T.
        • Hart N.
        Gamification: an innovative teaching-learning strategy for the digital nursing students in a community health nursing lesson.
        ABNF J. 2015; 26: 90-94
        • Tan C.
        • Yue W.G.
        • Fu Y.
        Effectiveness of flipped classrooms in nursing education: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Chin Nurs Res. 2017; 4: 192-200https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnre.2017.10.006
        • Choi J.
        • Lee S.E.
        • Bae J.
        • et al.
        Undergraduate nursing students’ experience of learning respiratory system assessment using flipped classroom: a mixed methods study.
        Nurse Educ Today. 2021; 98104664https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104664
        • Aksoy B.
        • Pasli Gurdogan E.
        Examining effects of the flipped classroom approach on motivation, learning strategies, urinary system knowledge, and urinary catheterization skills of first-year nursing students.
        Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2022; 19e12469https://doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12469
        • Moraros J.
        • Islam A.
        • Yu S.
        • Banow R.
        • Schindelka B.
        Flipping for success: evaluating the effectiveness of a novel teaching approach in a graduate level setting.
        BMC Med Educ. 2015; 15: 27https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0317-2
        • Gul S.
        • Tarakcioglu Celik G.
        • Arslan S.
        • Basit G.
        Evaluation of basic nursing practices during the clinical practice of nursing fundamentals lesson: a retrospective study.
        Health Soc. 2019; 29: 54-64
        • Sarmasoglu S.
        • Dinc L.
        • Elcin M.
        Views of nursing students on standard patients and models used in clinical skills training.
        J Educ Res Nurs. 2016; 13: 107-115https://doi.org/10.5222/HEAD.2016.107
        • Dikmen Y.
        • Akin Korhan E.
        Nursing fundamentals clinical practice guidelines.
        Acad Bookstore. 2016;
        • Tasci S.
        • Baser M.
        • Goris S.
        • et al.
        Basic Nursing Skills Learning Guide.
        3rd ed. Academician Bookstore, 2018
        • Akalin H.E.
        Patient safety culture: how to develop?.
        ANKEMJ. 2004; 18: 12-13
        • Du S.C.
        • Fu Z.T.
        • Wang Y.
        The flipped classroom–advantages and challenges.
        in: Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Economic Management and Trade Cooperation. Atlantis Press, 2014: 17-20
        • Harrington S.A.
        • Bosch M.V.
        • Schoofs N.
        • Beel-Bates C.
        • Anderson K.
        Quantitative outcomes for nursing students in a flipped classroom.
        Nurs Educ Perspect. 2015; 36: 179-181https://doi.org/10.5480/13-1255
        • Hanson J.
        Surveying the experiences and perceptions of undergraduate nursing students of a flipped classroom approach to increase understanding of drug science and its application to clinical practice.
        Nurse Educ Pract. 2016; 16: 79-85https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2015.09.001
        • Post J.L.
        • Deal B.
        • Hermanns M.
        Implementation of a flipped classroom: nursing students’ perspectives.
        J Nurs Educ Pract. 2015; 5: 25-30https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v5n6p25
        • Persky A.M.
        • McLaughlin J.E.
        The flipped classroom-from theory to practice in health professional education.
        Am J Pharm Educ. 2017; 81: 118https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe816118
        • Cabi E.
        The impact of the flipped classroom model on students’ academic achievement.
        Int Rev Res Open Distance Learn. 2018; 19: 202-221https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i3.3482
        • Basilaia G.
        • Kvavadze D.
        Transition to online education in schools during a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Georgia.
        Pedagog Res. 2020; 5em0060https://doi.org/10.29333/pr/7937
        • Adedoyin O.B.
        • Soykan E.
        Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: the challenges and opportunities.
        Interact Learn Environ. 2020; : 1-13https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180
        • Ahmady S.
        • Shahbazi S.
        • Heidari M.
        Transition to virtual learning during the coronavirus disease-2019 crisis in Iran: opportunity or challenge?.
        Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020; 14: e11-e12https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.142
        • Tabatabi S.
        COVID-19 impact and virtual medical education.
        J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2020; 8: 140-143https://doi.org/10.30476/jamp.2020.86070.1213
        • Khodaei S.
        • Hasanvand S.
        • Gholami M.
        • Mokhayeri Y.
        • Amini M.
        The effect of the online flipped classroom on self-directed learning readiness and metacognitive awareness in nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic.
        BMC Nurs. 2022; 21: 22https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-022-00804-6

      Biography

      Ali Kaplan is an Assistant Professor, Incesu Ayşe and Saffet Arslan Health Services Vocational School, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, University of Kayseri, Kayseri, Turkey. ORCID identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8242-0110.

      Biography

      Cevriye Özdemir is an Assistant Professor, Incesu Ayşe and Saffet Arslan Health Services Vocational School, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, University of Kayseri, Kayseri, Turkey. ORCID identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9401-0044.

      Biography

      Özlem Kaplan is a Research Assistant, Health Science Faculty, Department of Nursing, University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey. ORCID identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1050-8804.